This handout summarises the dynamic system of the modalities of the therapeutic relationship, the hexagon representing the therapeutic frame, and all modalities having potentially therapeutic as well as countertherapeutic effects. to some extent the modalities overlap, but traditionally therapists have emphasised the tensions, and absolutised them into mutually exclusive dogmatic positions. This diagram summarises these overlaps and tensions, spelling out some of the traditional polarisations. Rather than as ingrained theoretical-philosophical positions, we can find these tensions in the dynamic between each client and therapist, reflecting both internal and external dynamics via parallel process. So rather than thinking of the modalities as therapeutic alternatives, we can think of them as parallel process enactments, by which the dynamics of the clients inner world are reflected not only in the therapist's psyche, but also in the whole field of psychotherapy. We can thus use the modalities as mirrors and vehicles of the process, rather than objective and objectifying 'truths'.