This is a slightly reformulated version of Stephen Johnson's 5 steps of character formation. These five steps are the basic process by which developmental, relational injury occurs and leads to 'turning against the self' and chronic character formation. While rooted in Reich's character analysis, Johnson has drawn from and integrated many other developmental theories (Klein, object relations, ego psychology, self psychology), and come up with a basic typology similar to Reich's character structures. But whatever the age of the child, its developmental stage and the nature of the wounding, we can conceive of the internalisation process inherent in character formation in these 5 steps (essentially similar to Reich's layers), and present within each manifestation of character. Character is the frozen landscape of traumatic (not 'good-enough') development.